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The Centre for Internet and Society CIS is a non-profit organisation that undertakes interdisciplinary research on internet and digital technologies from policy and academic perspectives. The areas of focus include digital accessibility for persons with disabilities, access to knowledge, intellectual property rights, openness including open data, free and open source software, open standards, open access, open educational resources, and open video , internet governance, telecommunication reform, digital privacy, and cyber-security. The research at CIS seeks to understand the reconfiguration of social processes and structures through the internet and digital media technologies, and vice versa.
Through its diverse initiatives, CIS explores, intervenes in, and advances contemporary discourse and regulatory practices around internet, technology, and society in India, and elsewhere. Defining and Connecting Big Data and Internet of Things The Internet of Things is a term that refers to networked objects and systems that can connect to the internet and can transmit and receive data. General Implications of Big Data and Internet of Things Big Data paradigms are being adopted across countries, governments, and business sectors because of the potential insights and change that it can bring.
Send this. Filed under: Internet Governance , Big Data. Author Elonnai Hickok. Site Map Accessibility Contact. The final technological step is to reduce the opportunities for this to happen. Decrypting just in time and on site means that the content is not decrypted until just before it is used, no temporary copies are ever stored, and the information is decrypted as physically close to the usage site as possible.
An encrypted file containing a music album, for instance, would not be entirely decrypted and then played, because a sophisticated pro-. However, because even hard disks are replaced from time to time, this and all other such attempts to key to the specific hardware will fail in some situations.
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The idea of course is to select attributes stable enough that this failure rarely occurs. Instead, the file is decrypted "on the fly" i. On-site decryption involves placing the decryption hardware and the sound-generation hardware as physically close as possible, minimizing the opportunity to capture the decrypted content as it passes from one place to another inside or outside the computer.
Some playback devices are difficult to place physically near the computer's decryption hardware. For example, digital camcorders, digital VCRs, digital video disk DVD movie players, and so on all require cables to connect them to the computer, which means wires for interconnection, and wires offer the possibility for wiretapping the signal. One approach to maintaining on-site decryption for peripheral devices is illustrated by the Digital Transmission Content Protection DTCP standard, an evolving standard developed through a collaboration of Hitachi, Intel, Matsushita, Sony, and Toshiba see Box 5.
The computer and the peripheral need to communicate to establish that each is a device authorized to receive a decryption key. The key is then exchanged in a form that makes it difficult to intercept, and the content is transmitted over the wire in encrypted form.
IP, Big Data, and Society (Entering the Shift Age, eBook 10)
The peripheral device then does its own on-site decryption. This allows the computer and peripheral to share content yet provides a strong degree of protection while the information is in transit to the decryption site. But even given just-in-time and on-site decryption, a sophisticated programmer might be able to insert instructions that wrote each decrypted unit of content e.
There are a number of different ways to attempt this, depending partially on the degree to which the content delivery system is intended to work on existing hardware and software. The largest current market is of course for PCs running off-the-shelf operating systems such as Windows, Mac, and Linux.
The difficulty here is that these routines were not designed to hide the information they are processing.
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As a result, using an existing operating system opens another door to capturing the decrypted content. Rights holders need a way to specify how their content can be used. Compliant copy control devices must be able to extract from the copyrighted material and act in accordance with the contained instruction. Note that view of time-shifted content using a digital recorder is not possible material marked as "no copies permitted," The one-copy state has been specifically created to allow digital recorder time shifting.
Before sharing valuable information, a connected device must first verify that another connected device is authentic. This layer defines the set of protocols used to ensure the identity, authenticity and compliance of affected devices prior to the transfer of any protected material. Encryption is necessary because data placed on the wire is often simultaneously to all connected devices, not just the one device for which it is intended. Encrypting the data with keys known only to the sending and receiving devices protects the data while it is in transit.
System renewability ensures long-term integrity of the system through the revocation of compromised devices. Content delivery systems that wish to work in the environment of such operating systems attempt, through clever programming, to reduce the opportunities to capture the decrypted information while the operating system is performing output. But given existing operating systems, abundant opportunities still exist for a sophisticated programmer.
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Such computers would instead use specially written routines that will not read or write without checking with the decryption hardware on the computer to ensure that the operation is permitted under the conditions of use of the content. This more ambitious approach faces the substantial problem of requiring not only the development of a new and complex operating system but the widespread replacement of the existing installed base as well. This clearly raises the real possibility of rejection by consumers. The final problem is the ultimate delivery of the information: Music must be played, text and images displayed, and so on.
This presents one final, unavoidable opportunity for the user to capture the information. The sophisticated owner of a general-purpose computer can find ways to copy what appears on the screen e. As is usual in such matters, the expectation is that this will be tedious enough capturing a long document screenful by screenful , complex enough hooking up the converter , or of sufficiently low quality the captured speaker signal is not identical to the digital original that all but the most dedicated of thieves will see it as not worth the effort.
Nevertheless, those who place substantial faith in elaborate TPSs should keep in mind the necessity of presenting information to the user and the opportunity this provides for capture. More generally, because all protection mechanisms can eventually be defeated at the source e.
A good mechanism is one that provides the degree of disincentive desired to discourage theft but remains inexpensive enough so that it doesn't greatly reduce consumer demand for the product. A good deal more real-world experience is needed before both vendors and consumers can identify the appropriate trade-offs. Systems using one or more of these ideas are commercially available, and others are under active development.
InterTrust, IBM, and Xerox are marketing wide-ranging sets of software products aimed at providing persistent protection for many kinds of content. When a valuable digital object is not encrypted and is outside the sphere of control of its rights holder, the only technical means of hinder-. A variety of approaches have been used to accomplish these goals. One technique calls for releasing only versions of insufficient quality for the suspected misuses. Images, for example, can be posted on the Web with sufficient detail to determine whether they would be useful, for example, in an advertising layout, but with insufficient detail for reproduction in a magazine.
Another technique embeds in the digital document information about ownership, allowed uses, and so on.
Labels are intended to be immediately visible and are a low-tech solution in that they are generally easily removed or changed, offering no enforcement of usage terms. Labels could, nevertheless, ease the problem of IP management, at least among the fairly large audience of cooperative users.
Consider the utility of having every Web page carry a notice in the bottom right corner that spelled out the author's position on use of the page.
Copyright Timeline: A History of Copyright in the United States
Viewers would at least know what they could do with the page, without having to guess or track down the author, allowing cooperative users to behave appropriately. Getting this to work would require spreading the practice of adding such information, so that authors did it routinely, and some modest effort to develop standards addressing the kinds of things that would be useful to say in the label.
There is an existing range of standard legal phrases. A second category of label attached to some digital documents is a time stamp, used to establish that a work had certain properties e. The need for this arises from the malleability of digital information. It is simple to modify both the body of a document and the dates associated with it that are maintained by the operating system e.
Digital time stamping is a technique that affixes an authoritative, cryptographically strong time stamp to digital content; the label can be used to demonstrate what the state of the content was at a given time. A third-party time-stamping service may be involved to provide a trusted source for the time used in the time stamp.
Time-stamping technology is not currently widely deployed. Where the labels noted above are separate from the digital content, another form of marking embeds the information into the content itself. Such digital alterations are called watermarks and are analogous to watermarks manufactured into paper. An example cited earlier described how a music file might be watermarked by using a few bits of some music samples to encode ownership information and enforce usage restrictions.
The digital watermark may be there in a form readily apparent, much like a copyright notice on the margin of a photograph; it may be embedded throughout the document, in the manner of documents printed on watermarked paper, or it may be embedded so that it is normally undetected and can be extracted only if you know how and where to look, as in the music example. The objectives, means, and effectiveness of marking technologies depend on a number of factors.
Designing an appropriate watermark means, for instance, asking what mix is desired of visibility Should the mark be routinely visible?